Saturday, February 09, 2019

Symbiosis paper of interest: Host-Microbe Coevolution and Complex Marine Invertebrate Holobionts | mBio

This looks potentially interesting.



Host-Microbe Coevolution: Applying Evidence from Model Systems to Complex Marine Invertebrate Holobionts | mBio



O’Brien PA, Webster NS, Miller DJ, Bourne DG. 2019. Host-microbe coevolution: applying evidence from model systems to complex marine invertebrate holobionts. mBio 10:e02241-18. https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.02241-18.

ABSTRACT
Marine invertebrates often host diverse microbial communities, making it difficult to identify important symbionts and to understand how these communities are structured. This complexity has also made it challenging to assign microbial functions and to unravel the myriad of interactions among the microbiota. Here we propose to address these issues by applying evidence from model systems of host-microbe coevolution to complex marine invertebrate microbiomes. Coevolution is the reciprocal adaptation of one lineage in response to another and can occur through the interaction of a host and its beneficial symbiont. A classic indicator of coevolution is codivergence of host and microbe, and evidence of this is found in both corals and sponges. Metabolic collaboration between host and microbe is often linked to codivergence and appears likely in complex holobionts, where microbial symbionts can interact with host cells through production and degradation of metabolic compounds. Neutral models are also useful to distinguish selected microbes against a background population consisting predominately of random associates. Enhanced understanding of the interactions between marine invertebrates and their microbial communities is urgently required as coral reefs face unprecedented local and global pressures and as active restoration approaches, including manipulation of the microbiome, are proposed to improve the health and tolerance of reef species. On the basis of a detailed review of the literature, we propose three research criteria for examining coevolution in marine invertebrates: (i) identifying stochastic and deterministic components of the microbiome, (ii) assessing codivergence of host and microbe, and (iii) confirming the intimate association based on shared metabolic function.


Found out about it on Slack, Twitter and via Google Scholar automated searches so .. caught my attention.

Today's microbial diversity reading: A census-based estimate of Earth's bacterial and archaeal diversity

Looking at this today: A census-based estimate of Earth's bacterial and archaeal diversity

Louca S, Mazel F, Doebeli M, Parfrey LW (2019) A census-based estimate of Earth's bacterial and archaeal diversity. PLoS Biol 17(2): e3000106. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000106

Definitely worth a look:

Abstract
The global diversity of Bacteria and Archaea, the most ancient and most widespread forms of life on Earth, is a subject of intense controversy. This controversy stems largely from the fact that existing estimates are entirely based on theoretical models or extrapolations from small and biased data sets. Here, in an attempt to census the bulk of Earth's bacterial and archaeal ("prokaryotic") clades and to estimate their overall global richness, we analyzed over 1.7 billion 16S ribosomal RNA amplicon sequences in the V4 hypervariable region obtained from 492 studies worldwide, covering a multitude of environments and using multiple alternative primers. From this data set, we recovered 739,880 prokaryotic operational taxonomic units (OTUs, 16S-V4 gene clusters at 97% similarity), a commonly used measure of microbial richness. Using several statistical approaches, we estimate that there exist globally about 0.8–1.6 million prokaryotic OTUs, of which we recovered somewhere between 47%–96%, representing >99.98% of prokaryotic cells. Consistent with this conclusion, our data set independently "recaptured" 91%–93% of 16S sequences from multiple previous global surveys, including PCR-independent metagenomic surveys. The distribution of relative OTU abundances is consistent with a log-normal model commonly observed in larger organisms; the total number of OTUs predicted by this model is also consistent with our global richness estimates. By combining our estimates with the ratio of full-length versus partial-length (V4) sequence diversity in the SILVA sequence database, we further estimate that there exist about 2.2–4.3 million full-length OTUs worldwide. When restricting our analysis to the Americas, while controlling for the number of studies, we obtain similar richness estimates as for the global data set, suggesting that most OTUs are globally distributed. Qualitatively similar results are also obtained for other 16S similarity thresholds (90%, 95%, and 99%). Our estimates constrain the extent of a poorly quantified rare microbial biosphere and refute recent predictions that there exist trillions of prokaryotic OTUs.

Author summary
The global diversity of Bacteria and Archaea ("prokaryotes"), the most ancient and most widespread forms of life on Earth, is subject to high uncertainty. Here, to estimate the global diversity of prokaryotes, we analyzed a large number of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences, found in all prokaryotes and commonly used to catalogue prokaryotic diversity. Sequences were obtained from a multitude of environments across thousands of geographic locations worldwide. From this data set, we recovered 739,880 prokaryotic operational taxonomic units (OTUs), i.e., 16S gene clusters sharing 97% similarity, roughly corresponding to prokaryotic species. Using several statistical approaches and through comparison with existing databases and previous independent surveys, we estimate that there exist globally between 0.8 and 1.6 million prokaryotic OTUs. When restricting our analysis to the Americas, while controlling for the number of studies, we obtain similar estimates as for the global data set, suggesting that most OTUs are not restricted to a single continent but are instead globally distributed. Our estimates constrain the extent of a commonly hypothesized but poorly quantified rare prokaryotic biosphere and refute recent predictions that there exists trillions of prokaryotic OTUs. Our findings also indicate that, contrary to common speculation, extinctions may strongly influence global prokaryotic diversity.